Eating is a need, but being able to eat is a science. Reasonable diet structure and proper nutritional elements can increase the ability to resist disease and reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. So, how to eat healthier?
On March 18, a new research report published by ” BMJ ” revealed the relationship between multiple nutrients and health, and proposed a diet that can effectively reduce all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease risk. Match and warn people that excessive sugar and saturated fatty acid intake are the two biggest killers of health .
It needs to be explained here that saturated fatty acids refer to fatty acids that do not contain double bonds. Their main function is to provide energy for the human body and increase cholesterol and neutral fat in the human body. They are generally found in the fats of animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs . The fatty acids containing one or more double bonds in the molecule are unsaturated fatty acids . According to the number of unsaturated bonds in the carbon chain, they can be divided into monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Brain and other effects, common in vegetables, fish, fruits, milk and other foods.
Researchers from the University of Glasgow, Newcastle University, and Chile screened 195,658 eligible participants from the British Biobank, and explored three macronutrients (carbon water The relationship between compounds, fats and proteins) and their components (sugar, starch, dietary fiber, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids) and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality .
Data recorded showed that 4780 (2.4%) participants died and 10,724 (5.5%) participants developed cardiovascular disease during the follow-up period. Among them, the average follow-up period for dead patients was 10.6 years (range 9.4-13.9), and the average follow-up period for patients with cardiovascular disease was 9.7 years (range 8.5-13.0).
By analyzing data from these participants, the researchers found that carbohydrate (sugar, starch, and fiber) and protein intakes were non-linearly related to all-cause mortality, while fat was linearly related to all-cause mortality. Among them, higher sugar intake is associated with a higher risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease , while higher intake of saturated fatty acids is associated with a higher risk of all-cause death .
Therefore, in further research, the researchers used a multivariate nutrient density model to study the isocaloric substitution of these two nutrients . The results show that the use of starch, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein instead of sugar can reduce the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease under the condition of constant energy . At this time, as much as 30% of the energy of the substitute comes from starch and 25% comes from polysaccharide . 20% of unsaturated fatty acids come from protein. Similarly, when polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins are used instead of saturated fatty acids , all-cause mortality and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease can be reduced. At this time, the energy of polyunsaturated fatty acids is as high as 25%, and the energy of proteins is 15%.
Further research shows that among all dietary patterns, the dietary pattern with the lowest risk of all-cause mortality is: 10-30g high fiber, 14-30% protein, 10-25% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 5% -7% Saturated fatty acids and 20% -30% starch intake .
This study shows that when pairing your diet, you should not only consider the ratio of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, but also pay attention to the health effects of each different ingredient. However, this study did not investigate the relationship between added sugars, trans fats, polyunsaturated fat types, and animal and plant proteins. Therefore, it should be treated with caution when referring to it.